The skull is made up of cartilagenous and membranous bones. The cartilagenous bones make up the base of the skull and are more related to the musculoskeletal system of the spine. In contrast, the membranous bones form the cover over the cranial vault of the brain. They are called membranous bones because in childhood they grow within the outer membrane of the brain and typically, but not always, follow the brain’s growth.
The membranous bones of the skull are separated by large spaces in infants that later start to close as a child matures. The special joints that join the membranous bones together are called sutures because their unusual shapes looked like stitches to early anatomists. All bones are a reflection of the stresses that strain them. In this case the stress that strains the sutures comes from veins within the membranous bones called diploe. The sutures thus provide forensic evidence of drainage issues in the brain.
My investigation into the role of venous drainage issues in neurodegenerative diseases began sometime around 1984 while I was studying artificially deformed skulls from former indigenous people of Peru and Bolivia. The wide open state of some of the skull’s sutures that should have been closed caused me to look into hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus in turn led to a condition called normal pressure hydrocephlaus or NPH, which is sometimes associated with Alzheimer’s disease. AD next led to Parkinson’s disease because they sometimes share a suspicious and strange relationship in that one condition can progress into the other. AD also affects the periventricular areas of the brain, which is where the lesions in MS are often found. Consequently, MS kept turning up in my searches and so it got included in my research from the start. The biggest problem for me, however, was explaining the peculiar characteristics of the locations of the lesions seen in MS. One of those unusual characteristics is that the lesions tend to be located around the largest veins in the brain.
Schelling similarly began his research into the peculiar lesions of MS sometime around 1974 while studying skulls. In contrast to the sutures of the skull, however, Schelling got started after he noticed large differences in the jugular and other venous outlets of the skull in MS patients. The jugular foramen are the large holes you see in the picture, on the left and right side of the foramen magnum which is located in the middle. Schelling’s research provided many of the answers I was looking for when it came to the lesions of MS. I will do my best to summarize his findings in future posts. For now, I believe that what Schelling saw was skulls with design issues associated with reduced venous drainage capacity of the brain. In other words, what Schelling saw in the skulls way back in 1974 was forensic evidence of the role of CCSVI in causing MS.
Drainage issues such as those I saw in the artificially deformed skulls, hydrocehalus, and many other pathological skulls, including those with drainage design issues such as undersized jugular foramen, exaggerate the affects of hydraulic stress within the sutures of the membranous bones and cause them to stay open. These open sutures were exactly what I saw during my research. Just think, if venous pressure can carve bones and cause the sutures to stay open, imagine what water pressure within the skull, due to poor drainage issues, can do to the much softer tissues of the brain. I will discuss MS signs, symptoms and lesions due to drainage issues in future posts.
Dr. Zamboni only recently started looking into the role of venous drainage issues in neurodegenerative diseases after his wife became afflicted with MS. Consequently, he may be unaware of the full ramifications of CCSVI, and his surgical procedure which, is in terms of its development, in its infancy. There is far more to CCSVI than simply MS, and his liberation procedure may have far greater justification for its use in many more patients than Dr. Zamboni ever imagined when he first began his research.
MS is just the tip of the iceberg. It is my opinion that humans are predisposed to neurodegenerative diseases due to the design of the skull, spine and circulatory system of the brain as a result of upright posture. Some designs are less than perfect. In contrast to stenosis of distant jugular and thoracic veins causing CCSVI, I believe more people are affected by reduced drainage capacity issues in the skull and brain. Time will tell. In either case, the liberation procedure is probably the best answer for many cases of reduced drainage capacity due to design issues and it will most likely continue to evolve and improve. There is much more to this story.